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> Monitor on Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan |December 2017
   
 
CMR Monitor
January 10, 2018
Islamabad

   

This monitor is meant to identify key developments during the month on Civil Military Relations in Pakistan with selected high-profile international developments included occasionally.

In this Issue:

  1. Defence Minister only a facilitator, not boss of Pakistan Defence Organization, says Pakistan's Minister of Defence
  2. COAS attends meeting of the Senate Committee of the Whole
  3. Khawaja Saad Rafique's Statement and Response by DG ISPR
  4. Members of the Standing Committees on Defence visit LoC
  5. National Security Advisor meets former Premier?
  6. PM Abbasi visits deep sea with Pakistan Navy
  7. 206th Corps Commanders' Conference
  8. Continuing Role of COAS in Foreign Affairs
  9. Pakistan Army's Public Relations Activities
  10. 23rd Meeting of National Command Authority
  11. National Security Committee Meeting
  12. PM, COAS meet Maulana Fazl-ur-Rehman to discuss FATA reforms
  13. Land allotted to Army to move GHQ to Islamabad
  14. Army Chief Visits his Hometown: Announces construction of a Stadium
  15. PM-COAS Interactions
  16. Philippine Navy Chief sacked in surprise move

Defence Minister only a facilitator, not boss of Pakistani defence organization, says Pakistan's Minister of Defence

On December 30, Federal Minister of Defence, Engr. Khurram Dastgir Khan, MNA, made highly significant pronouncements on civil-military relations and the role of Minister of Defence.

Talking to Mr. Saleem Safi in his talk show Jirga, Mr. Khan said that there is indeed 'tanao' or tension in civil military relations in Pakistan. He also said that Defence Minister is not the boss or in-charge of Defence Organization, as is the diktat of the Constitution; that Defence Minister is merely a facilitator at best and most of the time even marginalised at that, while Prime Minister directly deals with leadership of the Armed Forces. Some of the key excerpts paraphrased below from his interview are:

  1. We [PML-N] have learnt that individually good relations between Services Chiefs and PM do not solve issues in civil-military relations. There have to be good inter-institutional relations
  2. We have to "search for truth in facts;" that while the Constitution is an ideal and inspiration but facts, on the ground, are different
  3. National Security Committee (NSC) is perhaps the best forum for dialogue on civil-military relations and now we [PML-N Government] are using it more regularly
  4. PML-N party leader Nawaz Sharif felt that merely winning the next election would be meaningless unless "awam ka haq-i-hakmiat" or the people's right to rule was not established and accepted. PML-N will go to the next General Election with the manifesto of supremacy of people
  5. When asked what is the minor difference of opinion on foreign relations between the civilian Government and the Armed Forces, he said that they are absolutely on the same page as far as relations with the US are concerned but on Afghanistan there are minor issues. He rather profoundly said that " ham bar bar yeh clarity chahtey hain Afwaj-e-Pakistan sey keh jo kuch bhi Afghanistan mein ho raha hai, us ka koi ta'aluq Pakistan sey nahin hona chahiyey ."

It is difficult to recall a more candid interview by a Pakistani Defence minister on the subject of civil-military relations. This is a sensitive and serious matter, seldom discussed in the open by a sitting Defence Minister in the past, leading the country to an almost definitive but discomforting conclusion that civil-military relations may be moving towards an era of 'open warfare'. No country can allow such tensions between State institutions or between popular political parties and the security establishment, especially given the prevailing tense relations with a superpower and some neighbouring countries.

COAS attends meeting of the Senate Committee of the Whole

On December 19, in an in-camera session of the Senate Committee of the Whole, DG MO Major General Sair Shamshad Mirza, briefed the Senate upon the invitation extended by the Chairman Senate, while the COAS answered queries of the Senators.[1] According to the Senate of Pakistan, the in-camera meeting was held " to prepare policy guidelines in the light of the emerging regional realities " as well as " to deliberate upon the emerging national security paradigm for Pakistan specially with respect to the recent foreign visits of the Chief of Army Staff and other recent developments in this regard ." The briefing was attended by the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) along with the DG MO, DG MI, DG ISI and DG ISPR. [2]

While the briefing was in-camera, news media reported details through various quotes from the DG ISPR as well as a number of Senators who were part of the briefing. The meeting, we are told, lasted for over three hours, in which first the COAS "gave an overview which was followed by a detailed presentation by Major General Sair Shamshad Mirza, DG MO." After the presentation, the COAS "personally answered the questions asked by the Members which touched upon all areas of national interest and security," as per the Senate website.

In recent history, Gen. Bajwa is the second COAS to have come to Parliament for a briefing following such a briefing by the erstwhile COAS Kayani and then-DG ISI Lt. Gen. Pasha who briefed joint session of the Parliament in May 2011 after the killing of Osama bin Ladin in the Abbottabad operation. In terms of personally answering the questions of the parliamentarians or any of its committee, Gen. Bajwa's may be regarded as the first of its kind.

That the COAS briefed a house of the Parliament is both a good development and also brings home the stark reality of the miles Pakistan's democratic oversight of defence have to travel to follow the norm in other developed democracies. The fanfare with which the COAS was received was almost similar to a head of a State opening the Parliament in Pakistan or in other democracies. Such appearances are common and usual occurrence in democracies such as UK [3]and next-door India[4] where heads and representatives of respective defence forces regularly appear before their relevant Parliamentary committees to both brief them and answer their questions. The Parliament and Pakistan's democratic order need to efficiently and speedily evolve in a manner that such briefings should be a normal and regular occurrence by the relevant Parliamentary Committees and not at the level of Joint Session or one house of Parliament.

In an awkward though familiar pattern, as experienced after previous in-camera sessions of the Parliament, instantly, after the meeting, various quotes and information from the session flashed on the media, thus proving the age-old wariness of the security leadership towards politicians that they can not be trusted with sensitive national security information. This breach formed the basis of the Dawn Leaks story and its investigation. Parliament and Parliamentary committees must win and maintain trust of security establishments, in order to carry out an effective and efficient oversight of defence and security sector, an advice that comes from established democracies including the British Parliament. Similar advice was given to a Pakistani delegation, that included Honourable Senator and now Chairman Senate Raza Rabbani, as well as Senator Mushahid Hussain Sayed, Chairman Senate Standing Committee on Defence, by Rt. Hon. Sir Malcom Rifkind, chair of the UK Intelligence and Security Committee, during a PILDAT facilitated Study Visit to UK. Mr. Rifkind said that winning and maintaining trust is extremely important irrespective of what the law says adding that since its formation, there has never been any 'leak' from the ISC with regard to information provided by the intelligence services to the Committee. While it is important for Security establishment to know that it has to answer questions asked by the Parliament and its Committees, "a relationship based on mutual trust" also has to be cultivated. [5] It is, therefore, commendable that Senator Rabbani has taken the leaks from the in-camera session seriously and has referred the matter to the House Business Advisory Committee for probe. [6]

Khawaja Saad Rafique's Statement and Response by DG ISPR

Khwaja Saad Rafique's statement on December 24 generated a great deal of heat and controversy. His words seemed to imply that subordinate institutions under the Army Chief create occasional mischief although the stated policy of the Army Chief was pro-democracy and in harmony with the civilian government's policies. The DG ISPR did not waste much time in declaring the Federal Minister's statement 'irresponsible' at a news conference.

Khawaja Saad Rafique, in a ceremony marking his father's death anniversary, said that Gen Bajwa's appearance before Senators on December 19 was a confidence-boosting move as he upheld the democratic norms and continuity of democratic system in the country. In his remarks, Mr. Rafique added that democratic ethos of the COAS must be commended and appreciated by everyone - including by those upon whom his command is mandatory, adding that institutions under the COAS must desist from mischief making against democratic governments. ( Iss ki tayeed unhain bhi karni chahiye jin par un ka hukm lazim hai; unhain bhi uss hukm ke ata'at karni chahiye …. Iss ki support unhain bhi karni chahiye jo choti choti sharartain kertay hain ). [8]

"We take this statement with concern," said the DG ISPR. He also said that the Minister's statement "does not appear to be un-intended; it is irresponsible and unwarranted, because it is targeting chain of command and subordination system of Pakistan Army." He also said that Federal Minister's statement "violated the Constitution," and added that " agar aisi line chairain ge tau bohot se irtiash paida hon ge." (If such a line is taken, there will be reverberations/repercussions.)

Members of the Standing Committees on Defence visit LoC

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Members of the Senate and National Assembly Standing Committees on Defence on a visit to the Line of Control in Azad Kashmir, on December 05, 2017

The ISPR reported that that on December 05, a delegation of members of Standing Committees on Defence from both houses of the Parliament visited at Line of Control (LoC) in Azad Kashmir. The delegation was briefed about the situation alongside the LoC, Indian violations of the Cease Fire, loss of civilian life, and damage to property. [9]

National Security Advisor meets former Premier?

First time after the disqualification of former Premier Mr. Nawaz Sharif, National Security Advisor to Prime Minister, Lt. Gen Nasser Khan Janjua, reportedly met with Mr. Sharif, at his Jati Umra residence in Raiwind, Lahore on December 28. Reportedly, the meeting continued for 5 hours, where Mr. Sharif stressed on the need to maintain friendly ties with neighbouring countries.[10]

PML-N Information Secretary, and Minister for Climate Change, Senator Mushahid Ullah Khan, while answering a question about Mr. Nawaz's strained relations with the military establishment, and his involvement in government affairs despite his disqualification, said that, "the security adviser does not need anybody's permission to brief the PML-N chief on security issues as he is a civilian member of the cabinet." He also added that Mr Sharif is chief of the ruling PML-N and could meet any member of his party's government." [11]

Later some media reports contradicted that such a meeting ever took place. Both the former PM and NSA's office neither confirmed nor denied the meeting.

If the meeting took place, it was not clear what NSA might have discussed for five hours with the former PM who does not hold a public office any more.

PM Abbasi visits deep sea with Pakistan Navy

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PM Abbasi receiving the Dolphin insignia of the Pakistan Navy

On a three-day visit to Karachi, from December 22-24, during an operational review of the Pakistan Navy, Prime Minister Abbasi boarded a submarine in open sea, which made him the first Prime Minister of Pakistan having done so. He was awarded the Dolphin insignia of the Pakistan Navy. He also witnessed replenishment exercise by the Navy, rocket depth charge firing by ship & aircraft and helicopter-borne board, search & seizure. The premier expressed satisfaction with the operational preparedness of the Pakistan Navy.[12]

206th Corps Commanders' Conference

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206th Corps Commanders' Conference, chaired by COAS

The COAS chaired the 206th Corps Commanders' Conference at the GHQ on December 05, 2017, where he took the top military brass on-board on his "military diplomacy" in his recent international visits, as well as interactions with foreign dignitaries. The forum also discussed internal and external security situation with special reference to Afghanistan. Operational review of Operation Radd ul Fasaad, as well as Khushal Balochistan programme, launched to improve stability in Balochistan through security and socio-economic development. [13]

PILDAT has continued to comment on growing role of Army Chiefs in Pakistan's foreign relations. That visits and interactions often take place in the absence of representatives of Pakistan's foreign office is contrary to the norms of democratic governance. That continuing this should be dubbed as military diplomacy is a notion not in sync with the Constitution and democratic governance in Pakistan. Much like every system of democratic governance, military's input in Foreign Policy is, and should be, sought and considered by each elected Government and should preferably be done so in Pakistan at the forum of the NSC by the elected Premier.

It appears that the Government has made 'mainstreaming of the Balochs through development programmes' also the responsibility of the Pakistan Army. If the Army Chief has to personally address both regional and foreign policy issues, and has to oversee issues of development as well, isn't he heading an institution that is overburdened above and beyond the principle requirements of national defence? With such praiseworthy institutional capabilities, the formation commanders under the able guidance of the COAS would do well to find a solution to unnecessary and unwarranted overreach of the Pakistan Military in other than defence affairs. A country dealing with serious issues of prevailing tense relations with a superpower and neighbouring countries urgently requires all institutions to come together to find a solution to the continuing issue of multiple power centres.

Continuing Role of COAS in Foreign Affairs

The COAS continues to play an active role in the diplomatic domain. Following is an account of his diplomatic interactions during November 2017:

  1. Lieutenant General Muhammad Jawad Khadum Al-Abadi, General Secretary Iraqi Ministry of Defence, paid a visit to the Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, at the GHQ on December 06, 2017, to discuss matters of regional security.[14]
  2. U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan, Mr. David Hale, called on the COAS at the GHQ on December 11, 2017, to discuss matters of mutual interest and regional security.[15]
  3. Mr. Mohammad Bin Abdullah Al-Aeysh, Deputy Defence Minister Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, called on the COAS, on December 12, 2017, and discussed Matters of regional security and enhanced bilateral defence cooperation. [16]
  4. Yet another dignitary from the Middle East interacted with the COAS on the same day. Mr. Walid A.M. Abu Ali, Ambassador of the State of Palestine, called on the COAS, at the GHQ, on December 12, 2017, where he thanked the COAS for Pakistan's support to the Palestinian cause. The COAS reassured the ambassador that the Palestinian issue is at par with the Kashmir issue to Pakistan, and Palestine has Pakistan's unequivocal support. [17]

Pakistan Army's Public Relations Activities

  1. Seminar for Youth in Balochistan

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    Members of media, civil-society, and politicians attend seminar on 'Human Resource Development for the Youth of Balochistan - Opportunities and Challenges,' on December 07, 2017 in Quetta

    Pakistan Army organized a seminar on "Human Resource Development for the Youth of Balochistan - Opportunities and Challenges" in Quetta, on December 07, 2017. Members of academia and civil society, media and politicians took part in the seminar, as well as youth from Balochistan. [18] The Chief of Army Staff was the keynote speaker in the seminar, and he laid emphasis on the need for development in education in Balochistan. He said that where madrasah system is well established in Balochistan, it causes students to be left behind in the march of development, as students are only given religious education in madrasahs. He called for quality education in the province.[19]

  2. Youth Jirga at ISPR Directorate

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    Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Javed Bajwa addressing Tribal Elders from FATA and members of Youth Jirga at ISPR Directorate in Islamabad on December 13, 2017

    After the decision by the Government to delay FATA Reforms bill, and subsequent uproar in the National Assembly, tribal elders from FATA and members of Youth Jirga called on the COAS at the ISPR Directorate on December 13, 2017, to express their views on mainstreaming of FATA and way forward.[20] The COAS held discussions with both the groups separately, and reiterated his support for mainstreaming of the Tribal belt. [21]

    Commander Peshawar Corps, Director General Inter-Services Intelligence, and Chief of General Staff were also present on the occasion. A similar Youth delegation from FATA had also visited the ISPR last month as well. [22]

  3. COAS celebrates Christmas


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    COAS joined in Christmas day celebrations

    The COAS took part in Christmas day celebrations held at Christ Church in Rawalpindi on December 25, 2017. The congregation thanked the COAS for being a part of the festivities, and the COAS acknowledged the contributions of the Christian community in various fields. He especially acknowledged their contributions in defence of motherland as part of Pakistan Armed Forces.[23]

23rd Meeting of National Command Authority

After a gap of nearly two years, the 23rd session of the National Command Authority (NCA) took place under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi on December 21, 2017. The NCA law does not set periodicity of meetings except stating that " the Authority shall meet at such time and place and in such a manner as may be prescribed ." [24]

The NCA is the apex civilian led command to oversee the employment, policy formulation, exercises, deployment, research and development, and operational command and control of Pakistan's nuclear arsenals. In the press statement after the meeting, it was shared that Pakistan's defence doctrine 'essentially means possessing a complete range of weapons with enough … to have all Indian targets … within the striking range.'[25]

National Security Committee Meeting

The 16th meeting of the National Security Committee was held on December 18, 2017, under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abbasi. The meeting discussed foreign policy matters in light of the recent move of US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. It also reviewed the security situation in the GCC States and Iran, in light of relations with Pakistan.[26]

The council tasked National Security Advisor to finalize the National Security Policy. The meeting was attended by Mr. Ahsan Iqbal, Minister for Interior; Lt. General (Retd.) Nasser Khan Janjua, National Security Advisor; General Zubair Mehmood Hayat, Chairman JCSC; General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of the Army Staff; Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, Chief of the Naval Staff; Air Chief Marshall Sohail Aman, Chief of the Air Staff and other senior civil and military officials. [27] Federal Minister of Defence was not reported to be part of the meeting.

PM, COAS meet Maulana Fazl-ur-Rehman to discuss FATA reforms

Although no official word came from the Prime Minister's Office, a meeting took place between Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam-Fazl (JUI-F) Chief, Maulana Fazlur Rehman, Prime Minister Abbasi and Chief of Army Staff, on December 19, 2017, Maulana Fazlur Rehman revealed to reporters later. The meeting took place to discuss FATA reforms. JUI-F is one of the two parties stonewalling FATA reforms due to some concerns. Dawn writes that, 'Army chief's participation in the meeting is being viewed as a significant development, since most of FATA is being looked after by the Army, especially the areas where military operations are in progress.' [28]

The JUI-F Chief said that the meeting took place in the Prime Minister's chambers, and he was informed there that the COAS had wished to meet him. However, he informed that although further consultations will continue with the government over the reforms bill, "there will be no further meeting with the military leadership on the issue." [29]

Land allotted to Army to move GHQ to Islamabad

After a high-level meeting in Islamabad between Capital Development Authority officials, and the Pakistan Army, it was decided that 1000 acres of land will be handed over to the Army so that the General Headquarters (GHQ) can be shifted from Rawalpindi, to the Federal Capital.

The plan to move the GHQ from Rawalpindi to Islamabad was shelved in 2008-09 due to critical comments appearing in national and social media, financial constraints, as well as on the instruction of the then Army Chief, Gen Ashfaq Pervez Kayani. According to CDA officials, affectees of this land distribution will be accommodated in H-17 or I-16, which will later be developed by the CDA. The military has also asked CDA officials in a letter to demarcate Army land in the Margallas, so the Army can take proper control of it.[30]

Earlier Dawn also reported extension of Defence Housing Authority Karachi. More land was requested on the basis that, "The Pak Army has a pressing need to rehabilitate the families of the martyrs and DHA Karachi has no option but to request you to meet this obligation towards those who have laid [down] their lives for the motherland." [31]

Dawn reports that, "DHA Karachi requested the land for DCK - 11,640 acres first and 8,000 acres later - for the purpose of rehabilitating the families of the soldiers martyred in the 'war on terror'. According to military sources, an estimated 6,000 personnel have been martyred in the war against terrorism since 2001.

According to Administrator DHA Brig Ali, the fallen soldiers are compensated according to their rank, albeit there can be exceptions to this rule."

Army Chief Visits his Hometown: Announces construction of a Stadium

In a visit to his hometown of Gakhar Mandi, the Chief of Army Staff announced the construction of a sports stadium costing Rs. 175 million, as well as a revamp of the entire sewage system of the town, and construction of a boundary wall of the graveyard. He also ordered the immediate removal of the cattle market along the boundary walls of government Degree College for girls and boys.[32]

It, however, remained unclear whether the Chief of Army Staff has asked the Provincial or Federal Government to undertake these projects or these will be constructed from the budget of the Army.

PM-COAS Interactions

Prime Minister, Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abassi, and the Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, met thrice during the month of December 2017:

  1. On December 18, 2017, the PM met the COAS in the 16th National Security Committee meeting. Other attendees included: Mr. Ahsan Iqbal, Minister for Interior; Lt. General (Retd.) Nasser Khan Janjua, National Security Advisor; General Zubair Mehmood Hayat, Chairman JCSC; Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, Chief of the Naval Staff; Air Chief Marshall Sohail Aman, Chief of the Air Staff and other senior civil and military officials.[33] Federal Minister of Defence was not reported to be part of the meeting.
  2. On December 19, 2017, the Prime Minister, along with the COAS, held a meeting with Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam-Fazl (JUI-F) Chief, Maulana Fazlur Rehman in Islamabad. Federal Minister of Defence was not reported to be part of the meeting.
  3. On December 21, 2017, the PM attended the 23rd meeting of the National Command Authority, along with the Chief of Army Staff. Federal Minister of Defence was part of the meeting.

International News

Philippine Navy Chief sacked in surprise move

Vice Admiral Ronald Joseph Mercado, Philippine's Chief of Naval Staff, was removed from his post four months ahead of his retirement and replaced by Rear Admiral Robert Empedrad, in compliance with "the instructions from higher authorities," according to Philippine's military spokesperson. [34]

According to Reuters, 'the former navy chief had lost the "trust and confidence" of Defence Secretary Delfin Lorenzana,' who is the head of Department of National Defence and a member of the President's Cabinet. A military official explained that, "There were some policy differences between the defence department and the navy over the 18 billion pesos ($358 million) acquisition of two brand-new frigates from South Korea." [35]

 
 


References

[1] For details, please see COAS briefs senators on national security Dawn, December 19, 2017:
https://www.dawn.com/news/1377559

[2] Senate of Pakistan Press Release, Official Website, December 19, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
http://www.senate.gov.pk/en/news_content.php?id=2631

[5] For details, please see PILDAT Report of Study Visit by Pakistani Parliamentarians & Intellectuals on Democratic Oversight on Defence and National Security in the UK: July 03-05, 2012; London, UK:
http://www.pildat.org/Publications/publication/CMR/PakistaniParliamentariansAndIntellectualsOn
DemocraticOversightonDefenceandNationalSecurityintheUK_July03-05_%202012.pdf

[6] In-camera briefing: Senators face action for breaching House rules, THE NEWS, December 21, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/258602-in-camera-briefing-senators-face-action-for-breaching-house-rules

[7] DG ISPR's Press Conference can be viewed at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xp4sZUJElTk

[8] For details, please see the speech of Khawaja Sadd Rafique at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXNlhHuYPBc

[9] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 05, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4423&cat=army

[10] Security, terrorism discussed at NSA-Sharif Jati Umra meeting, DAWN, December 29, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://epaper.dawn.com/DetailImage.php?StoryImage=29_12_2017_001_005

[11] Security, terrorism discussed at NSA-Sharif Jati Umra meeting, DAWN, December 29, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://epaper.dawn.com/DetailImage.php?StoryImage=29_12_2017_001_005

[12] Abbasi becomes first Pakistan PM to board submarine in open sea, EXPRESS TRIBUNE, December 24, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://tribune.com.pk/story/1591963/1-abbasi-becomes-first-pakistan-pm-board-submarine-open-sea/

[13] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 05, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4423&cat=army

[14] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 06, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4427&cat=army

[15] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 11, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4437&cat=army

[16] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 12, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4440&cat=army

[17] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 12, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4440&cat=army

[18] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 07, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4430&cat=army

[19] Army chief calls for widening scope of madressah education, DAWN, December 8, 2017, as accessed on December 04, 2017 at
https://epaper.dawn.com/DetailImage.php?StoryImage=08_12_2017_001_001

[20] Army will support and pursue mainstreaming of Fata, vows Gen Bajwa, DAWN, December 13, 2017, as accessed on December 04, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1376388

[21] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 13, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4444&cat=army

[22] PILDAT Monitor on Civil-Military Relations November, PILDAT Website, December 14, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
http://www.pildat.org/eventsdel.asp?detid=957

[23] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, December 25, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4463&cat=army

[24] For details, please see The National Command Authority Act, 2010

[25] Pakistan to retain full spectrum deterrence policy, DAWN, December 22, 2017, as accessed on December 04, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1378106/pakistan-to-retain-full-spectrum-deterrence-policy

[26] Prime Minister Office Press Release, Official Website, December 18, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=2123

[27] Prime Minister Office Press Release, Official Website, December 18, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=2123

[28] PM, army chief discuss Fata issue with Fazl, DAWN, December 20, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1377680/pm-army-chief-discuss-fata-issue-with-fazl

[29] PM, army chief discuss Fata issue with Fazl, DAWN, December 20, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1377680/pm-army-chief-discuss-fata-issue-with-fazl

[30] Army to be allotted over 1,000 acres for new GHQ, other offices, DAWN, December 27, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1379072/army-to-be-allotted-over-1000-acres-for-new-ghq-other-offices

[31] The DHA City juggernaut rolls on in the name of development, DAWN, December 19, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1376579

[32] COAS visits hometown, announces stadium, DAWN, December 25, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1378659/coas-visits-hometown-announces-stadium

[33] Prime Minister Office Press Release, Official Website, December 18, 2017, as accessed on January 02, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=2123

[34] Philippine navy chief sacked in surprise move, THE NEWS, December 20, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/258219-philippine-navy-chief-sacked-in-surprise-move

[35] Philippine military removes navy chief, but won't say why, REUTERS, December 19, 2017, as accessed on January 04, 2017 at
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-defence/philippine-military-removes-navy-chief-but-wont-say-why-idUSKBN1ED1EM