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> Monitor on Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan | September 2017
   
 
CMR Monitor
October 13, 2017
Islamabad

   

This monitor is meant to identify key developments during the month on Civil Military Relations in Pakistan with selected high-profile international developments included occasionally.

In this Issue:

  1. In Aid of Civil Power
  2. No More Do More, or Not?
  3. Corps Commanders' Conference
  4. Pakistan Army's New Ventures
  5. Prime Minister participates in Air Force training mission
  6. Census termed 'compromised' by UN body
  7. PM increases civilian share in ISI's hierarchy
  8. Members of the Senate and National Assembly Defence Committees meet the COAS
  9. PAF Chief urges Private Sector to explore Aviation Sector
  10. Civil Military leadership review Muharram plan
  11. President AJK meets Chairman JCS Committee
  12. Continuing Role of COAS in Foreign Affairs
  13. Meeting of National Security Committee
  14. PM-COAS Interactions
  15. Thai Ex-PM Yingluck gets five years
  16. Anti-Communist parade in Indonesia revives Civil-Military tensions
  17. Turkey continues to arrest alleged coup conspirators

In aid of Civil Power

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Armed Forces installing equipment to drain rainwater in Karachi

When Karachi began to drown in torrential rain, Pakistan Army came forward in aid of civil power to clear out water from the flooded areas of different parts of the city. According to Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) Press Release on September 01, 2017, Pakistan Army and Pakistan Rangers Sindh worked round-the-clock to assist civilian administration to drain water from different areas in Karachi. [1]

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Army Personnel deployed at NA-120 by-poll

Similarly, Army troops were deployed in every polling station in the NA-120 by-poll on September 17, 2017, as directed by the Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP).[2] During the polls, some media reports accused the Army of not allowing media personnel to enter the polling stations. The ECP took notice of the situation, [3] after which ISPR released a statement saying, 'Media having ECP accreditation card is visiting polling stations. No restrictions imposed by Army.' [4]

 

No More Do More, or Not?

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COAS General Qamar Javed Bajwa, while giving his speech on Defence Day at the General Headquarters in Rawalpindi

Celebrating Pakistan's 52nd Defence Day in a ceremony held at GHQ on September 06, 2017, Chief of Army Staff (COAS), General Qamar Bajwa, said that the World must do more as Pakistan has done more than most. Speaking at the occasion and alluding to US call for Pakistan to 'do more,' [5] the General said that "if Pakistan has not done enough in this war, then no country in the world has done anything." He also said that "Only Pakistan has seen this level of success with such limited resources. From OperationSher Dil to Rah-i-Rast, Rah-i-Nijat, Zarb-e-Azb and now Raddul Fasad, we have paid for each inch [of gains] with our blood."[67]

The COAS also said that: "We have tried to help Afghanistan beyond our capabilities, but Afghanistan's war cannot be fought in Pakistan. We have made well-intentioned efforts for talks and peace in Afghanistan. However, Afghanistan is a self-sufficient country that is free to make its own decisions. If even today they veer towards war, then we cannot be a part of this war." He also highlighted issues in Kashmir and Balochistan in his speech, and said "We are keeping a close watch on the designs of our enemies."[68]

There seemed to be some divergence of opinions both within the Federal Government and between the stance maintained by the COAS and that of the Foreign Minister. On the same night, while speaking to an anchor on a private news channel, Foreign Minister, Khawaja Muhammad Asif, acknowledged BRICS (Brazil, Russia, Indian, China and South Africa) nations' concern over the alleged base of militant groups in Pakistan. He acknowledged the existence of Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) within Pakistan.[6] The Foreign Minister further called on Pakistan to reflect on its policies and called for a stronger stance against banned outfits. He said  "We should impose some restrictions on the activities of elements like LeT and JeM so that we can show the global community that we have put our house in order." [7]

On September 5, 2017, Defence Minister, Engr. Khurram Dastgir Khan, said that "there are no terrorist sanctuaries in Pakistan… Terrorist safe havens are found in Afghanistan; Pakistan does not fear any external aggression as its Army, Navy and Air Force are keeping a strict eye on the situation." He also said on September 10, 2017 that work was in progress to eliminate the remnants of Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Muhammad and Haqqani network. [8]

The newly appointed Foreign Minister also relayed this sentiment of self-reflection while being interviewed during his trip to the United States. Reportedly, there was criticism of the statement by the Foreign Minister by some members of the National Assembly Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs. [9] However, Prime Minister Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abbasi endorsed the Foreign Minister's statement in an interview with a private T.V. channel reported on September 18, 2017 and said that he too was of the same view of improving our house. [10]

Despite these apparently divergent views from civil and military leadership on the issue, Prime Minister Abbasi has reportedly maintained that "there's no difference between the civilian and military establishments on key national issues."[11]   The PM also said, "No more do more. We did not hear it anywhere," when asked if the Americans were still asking Pakistan to do more. [12]

 

Corps Commanders' Conference

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204th Corps Commanders' Conference on September 08, 2017

A Corps Commander's Conference was convened at the General Headquarters in Rawalpindi on September 8, 2017. The COAS chaired the 204th Corps Commanders' Conference, and as per the official press release, 'the forum discussed internal and external security situation of the country and progress of operation Raddul Fasad.' [13]

.

Pakistan Army's New Ventures

  1. The Pakistan Army has established a museum in Lahore which opened for general public on September 10, 2017 and was inaugurated by the COAS. The Museum, established in the Lahore Garrison, has different exhibits, including Shuhada Corner; Nishan-e-Haider Gallery; Life at highest battlefield Siachin, Kashmir Corner, etc. There is also a 'tribute to sacrifices of Minorities, titled White of the Flag.' [14]

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Army Museum Lahore opens to general public on Sep 10, 2017

  1. On September 14, 2017, the Pakistan Army also inaugurated an advanced level dental facility 'Maxillofacial Centre' at Institute of Dentistry CMH Lahore Medical College. The facility will cater for all the dental treatments/surgeries including facial deformities and aesthetics. It is also equipped to deal with dental problems of uncooperative patients and disabled paediatric patients. [15]
  2. The Army Chief also visited Swat and inaugurated an Army Public School and College at Kanju Garrison, Swat Cantt. The school has the capacity to educate 3600 students, and is equipped with state-of-the-art computer and science labs, auditorium and sports stadium.[16] According to ISPR, the school is a 'gift from Pakistan Army for resilient people of Swat in recognition of their contributions and sacrifices in defeating terrorism.'[17]

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Army Chief General Qamar Javed Bajwa, while interacting with students at Army Public School and College (APS&C), Kanju Garrison

  1. On September 27, 2017, the COAS inaugurated Road Ghallanai - Mohmand Gat, including 751 M of Nahakki tunnel, Mohmand Agency in FATA. The completed project will not only facilitate inter-agency travel but will also serve as a potential trade route with Afghanistan. The project is being undertaken by the FWO. [18]  Speaking at the occasion the COAS 'thanked local tribesmen for their great support to Army in getting rid of terrorists. He said the development projects are the actual prong towards achieving enduring peace and stability.' [19]

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"Cricket in NWA. Pak XI plays UK Media XI on September 21, 2017. Live telecast from Miramshah. Peace & prosperity is our destiny," tweeted by DG ISPR

  1. The ISPR organized an international cricketing event in Miramshah, where a UK Media team played against Pakistan XI on September 21, 2017. Although the game was organised on short notice, crowds of thousands of tribesmen and schoolboys managed to gather to watch their favourite players. A few years ago, such a match in North Waziristan would feature beheadings. However, the match exhibited how much the security situation has improved, as the Pak Army feels confident to organise an international event in Waziristan. [20] The team played 10 games in Lahore, Muzzafarabad and Chitral Valley. Although UK team lost the match, DG ISPR was confident that peace had won. He tweeted, "Peace wins at NWA. COAS thx PCB, PscZalmi, teams, media, admns & brave Pakistanis of NWA/FATA for successful conduct of historic event." [21]
  2. Pakistan Army also organized a 2-day boot camp on September 22, 2017 in Quetta Garrison. 200 students from different educational institutions in Balochistan were invited to witness and experience 'the challenges faced by officers and soldiers in the field.' The students resided in the army camp and witnessed various training activities in testing field environments. [22] According to ISPR, the boot camp was designed to create awareness about activities and challenges faced by the military while protecting the country. [23]
  3. On September 28, 2017, the COAS met a group of 173 students and faculty from different institutions in Balochistan at the ISPR Directorate. While interacting with the students and faculty members, the COAS highlighted the importance of Balochistan to Pakistan. [24] "Pakistan cannot progress without peace, stability and progress of Balochistan," he said. As reported earlier as well, students brought together, from across the nation for ISPR's 'Annual' Internship Program, also met Army Chief Qamar Javed Bajwa, who shared his views with them as well. There seems to be an increase in interaction with civilians, especially students, in the Army Chief's portfolio.

.

Prime Minister participates in Air Force training mission

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Prime Minister Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abbasi sitting in the rear cockpit of F-16 aircraft in full flying gear on September 09, 2017

During a visit to the newly established 'Airpower Centre of Excellence' at an operational airbase of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) in Sargodha on September 9, 2017, Prime Minister Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abbasi took part in exercise training mission aboard an F-16 aircraft. The PM sat in the rear cockpit of the fighter jet in full flying gear. Prime Minister Abbasi is the first Prime Minister to take part in an air force training mission. [25]

 

Census termed 'compromised' by UN body

A UNFPA report, while recognizing the need for presence of army personnel during data collection for census 2017, has questioned parallel data collection by the military during census and has termed it "a breach of confidentiality of the collected data" as per international census practices and procedures. [26]

The report stated that army administered a questionnaire, side by side with the census questionnaire, with total number of household members, and detailed nationality of the head of the household. Often, the civilian enumerator provided the information for the army questionnaire. Sometimes, the army officers copied information directly from the civilian enumerator's form. The army enumerator also had a mobile phone, via which Computerised National Identity Card (CNIC) numbers were shared with National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA), to verify the CNIC number. Sharing CNIC numbers with NADRA also breaches confidentiality of collected data.

The UNFPA report commented that "it is of course very unusual for soldiers to not only collect information in a population census but also to embark upon verification of (the) respondent's demographic information. In doing this, collected census data was shared with two other parties (the army and NADRA), which might further compromise the data quality, and which constitutes a breach of census data secrecy."

 

PM increases civilian share in ISI's hierarchy

On September 15, 2017, Prime Minister Abbasi approved a proposal to increase the number of Director Generals (Grade 21) in the ISI. DG is the highest civilian post in the Inter-Services Intelligence. Previously, there was only one post of DG in the ISI for civilians. The number has been increased to 4. Additionally, 7 more posts were created for civilians. Previously there were 8 Deputy Director Generals (Grade 20). Now there will be 15. [27]

According to Dawn, 'an official of the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) did not comment on the development, but said that since the Prime Minister was the competent authority, as the ISI worked under the PM Secretariat, it was his prerogative to increase the sanctioned posts in the agency.' Previously, in June 2013, civilian ISI officials had petitioned the Islamabad High Court against the slow pace of their promotions. However, the petition was dismissed, and aggrieved officials told to approach the Federal Services Tribunal for redressal. [69]

 

Members of the Senate and National Assembly Defence Committees meet the COAS

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Members of Senate and National Assembly Defence Committees meet the COAS

Members of the National Assembly and Senate Standing Committees on Defence visited the GHQ and met the COAS on September 18, 2017. The delegation, headed by Senator Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Abdul Qayyum, received a 'detailed briefing on evolving security situation on the borders and Pakistan Army's efforts for peace and stability.' [28]

According to National Assembly Secretariat Press Release, both Civil and Military leadership agreed that holding such interactions is in the highest national interest for developing policies to strengthen all institutions in the country.[29] According to The News, while answering queries of public representatives, the COAS categorically said that the military had nothing to do with the Panama Case, and he had good terms with both the former, and the sitting Prime Ministers. He also said that he was a government servant and he is bound to follow policies drafted by the Parliament. He believes in civilian supremacy, and is against military interventions. He lauded Prime Minister Abbasi for calling repeated meetings of cabinet committee on national security for consultative policy making. [30]

According to ISPR 'the session concluded with a resolve to continue our struggle against the menace of violent extremism through a synergetic, whole-of-the-nation approach based on the principle of "collective potential and shared responsibility".' [31]

 

PAF Chief urges Private Sector to explore Aviation Sector

Speaking to the business community at a dinner reception hosted by the Islamabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry reported on September 20, 2017, the PAF Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman NI(M) urged the private sector to explore aviation sector for investment, as it offered huge business prospect. He said that the PAF was already procuring small parts from local industry, but wanted local industry to meet its needs more, as that would save precious foreign exchange. [32]

The Chief said that the government and defence services were at the same page to ensure economic security of the country, and CPEC offered wonderful prospects for prosperity to Pakistan. [33] Ambassadors of Saudi Arabia, and Spain were also present at the dinner along with a number of members of the business community. [34]

.

Civil Military leadership review Muharram plan

On September 20, 2017, Corps Commander Multan, Lt. General Sarfaraz Sattar, presided over a meeting of senior army and civilian officers including the Commissioners and RPOs of Multan, Sahiwal and Dera Ghazi Khan divisions in order to review security arrangements for Muharram at the Corps Headquarters.[35]

The Corps Commander reportedly directed the officers of army to extend full cooperation to the civilian administration, and also reviewed the security arrangements made by different departments as the participants briefed the meeting on the measures adopted by their concerned departments. [36]

According to The Nation, speaking at a meeting of the District Peace Committee, Acting DC Mr. Allah Ditta Warraich, DPO Dr. Sardar Ghias Gul and Chairman District Council, Mian Afzal Hussain Tarar, had said that lawlessness would not be tolerated and called upon Ulema of different school of thoughts to desist from uttering any word during their sermons which might injure the sentiments of other sects. They also said that although district administration and police have chalked out comprehensive strategy to ensure peaceful atmosphere in the district, yet the Rangers and personnel of Pak Army would be at the beck and call of the administration in case of any eventuality. [37]

It is not clear as to who is responsible according to the standard operating procedures for such coordination at the divisional level and whether such meetings attended by the civil administration are chaired by the military officer as a norm or it was an exceptional development.

 

President AJK met Chairman JCS Committee

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President AJK meeting Chairman JCS Committee at Joint Staff Headquarters in Rawalpindi

According to ISPR, on September 27, 2017, Mr. Muhammad Masood Khan, President of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, called on General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Chairman JCS Committee, at the Joint Staff Headquarters in Rawalpindi. During the meeting, matters related to regional security with emphasis on human rights violations by Indian forces in Indian Occupied Kashmir came under discussion. [38] President Azad Jammu and Kashmir praised the resolve of Pakistan Armed Forces to deter and defeat any aggression by India against Azad Kashmir. [39]

 

Continuing Role of COAS in Foreign Affairs

The Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Bajwa, has continued to hold exclusive interactions with diplomats and international political leadership in September 2017. Below is an account of his interactions during the month:

  1. COAS briefs Australian Civil-Military leadership

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COAS with Australian Foreign Minister Ms. Julie Bishop

On September 11, 2017, the COAS embarked on a two-day official visit to Australia, on the invitation of the Australian Army Chief. The COAS also met Australian Foreign Minister, Ms. Julie Bishop, and Defence Minister, Ms. Marise Payne, at the Australian Parliament House. During these meetings, COAS highlighted the regional security situation, and expressed Pakistan Army's commitment to peace and stability in the region, but also conveyed that, "we expect our security concerns are also addressed". [40]

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From Left to Right: Secretary Defence, Greg Moriarty; COAS Qamar Javed Bajwa; Air Chief Marshall Mark Binskin; Naela Chohan, High Commissioner of Pakistan to Australia

COAS also met Australian Senate's Committee for Foreign and Defence Affairs, Australian Chief of Defence Staff Air Chief Marshall Mark Binskin (accompanied by their Secretary Defence Mr. Greg Moriarty) and Air Chief Air Marshal Gavin Davies. The COAS also visited Joint operations and planning Headquarters and Force Command headquarters.

COAS also interacted at Australian Strategic Policy Institute and the Office of National Assessment both of which advise the Australian government on myriad policy issues. [41] Australian leadership lauded Pakistan's contribution to the regional security, and renewed commitment to improve bilateral collaboration in defence and security. [42]

  1. Tripartite meeting in Kabul

    On September 14, 2017, tripartite (Pak-U.S.-Afg) military cooperation meetings were held at the Ministry of Defence in Kabul, in order to eliminate DAESH from the region. Pakistan was represented by a high level military delegation, led by Director General Military Operations (DGMO) Major General Sahir Shamshad Mirza. The three sides expressed commitment to oust DAESH out of the region. [43] Afghan Defence Ministry spokesman Maj. Gen. Dawlat Waziri was quoted by the Afghan media as having said that the tripartite meeting took place after a bilateral engagement between militaries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. [44] There was also a bilateral meeting between Pakistan and Afghanistan, whose agenda included issues related to cross-border fire and attacks, counterterrorism coordinated actions on the respective side along the Pak-Afghan border and detainees' exchange.[45]

  2. COAS Meetings with various Ambassadors
    1. On September 18, 2017 the COAS met Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan, Mr. Sadik Babur Girgin at the GHQ, Rawalpindi.[46]
    2. Afghan Ambassador to Pakistan, Mr. Omar Zakhiwal, called on the COAS on September 20, 2017 at the GHQ. According to ISPR, issues of mutual interest including security situation were discussed. The gradual improvement in bilateral cooperation was also noted with satisfaction. [47]
    3. The COAS met Mr. Martin Kobler, German Ambassador to Pakistan, on September 21, 2017, at the General Headquarters (GHQ). According to ISPR, 'issues of mutual interest including security situation were discussed. Ambassador said that Germany is grateful to Pakistan for its fight against terrorism and assured of his continued efforts in improving bilateral relations between the two countries.'[48]
    4. The COAS met Mr. Thomas Drew CMG, British High Commissioner to Pakistan, on September 22, 2017 at the GHQ. According to ISPR, 'matters of mutual interest and regional security were discussed. The visiting dignitary acknowledged and appreciated Pakistan's continuous efforts for peace and stability in the region.'[49]
    5. The COAS met Mr. Sun Weidong, Ambassador of China to Pakistan, on September 26, 2017 at the GHQ in order to bid farewell to the Chief at the end of his tenure in Pakistan. [50]
    .
  3. Telephone call to Iranian Army Chief

    COAS and Chief of Staff of the Iranian Armed Forces Major General Mohammad Hossein Baqeri engaged in a phone conversation to enhance cooperation between the two countries, in order to help Rohingya Muslims. [51] The two military leaders expressed grave concern over the state of Rohingya Muslims and called for the Muslim world to take action in order to end plight of the Muslim minority. They also said that military and non-military organizations of Muslim countries could mobilize their forces and facilities to speed up the dispatch of humanitarian relief to the persecuted Muslims in Myanmar. [52]

 

Meeting of the National Security Committee

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PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi chairing meeting of the National Security Committee on September 29, 2017

One NSC meeting took place during the month on September 29, 2017. The committee reviewed Indian violations at the Line of Control and condemned violations of human rights in Indian Occupied Kashmir. Premier and Foreign Minister's interactions with world leaders during the UN General Assembly were also discussed at the meeting. Developments in relations with Afghanistan were also reviewed in the meeting. [53]

With the Prime Minister in Chair, the meeting was attended by the following members of the NSC: Federaal Ministers of Finance and Foreign Affairs, Chairman JCSC, COAS, Chief of Naval Staff and Chief of Air Staff. As per the PM Office press release, Federal Ministers of Defence Interior were not present in the meeting. In addition to the NSC members, the meeting was also attended by some senior civil and military officials.

 

PM-COAS Interactions

Prime Minister Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abassi and the Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa met twice during the month of September 2017.  

  1. The COAS met the PM at a meeting of the National Committee on the Implementation of FATA Reforms chaired by the PM on September 08, 2017.[54] The meeting was called in order to review progress on FATA reforms. The COAS 'briefed the Committee on the successes achieved in extending the writ of state throughout FATA and on the steps taken to strengthen security and border infrastructure as well as the development efforts during the last few years.'[55]
    Other members of the Committee who attended the meeting included Governor Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Chief Minister KP, Federal Minister for SAFRON, Federal Minister for Law & Justice and Deputy Chairman Planning Commission in addition to senior civil and military officials. [56]
  2. The PM and COAS met again during the NSC meeting held on September 29, 2017.[57]

 

International News

Thai Ex-PM Yingluck gets five years

Nine Thai Supreme Court judges voted unanimously to find ex-PM Yingluck Shinawatra guilty of mismanaging a rice subsidy scheme that cost the country billions of dollars. Yingluck was sentenced in absentia as she had fled from the country. A warrant has also been issued for her arrest. [58]

Although no such official plans have been announced, media reports suggest that Thai Junta Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha is preparing to keep the Premiership. Political activities of all parties are banned since Prayuth's 2014 coup, but Prayuth seems to be running a campaign to garner support. [70]

 

Anti-Communist parade in Indonesia revives Civil-Military tensions

Several thousand protestors held an anti-communist rally outside the Indonesian Parliament on September 29, 2017 led by Islamist groups. The protest marked the 52nd anniversary of the murder of six generals and a young lieutenant by rebel communist armed forces in 1965. The murder made space for more than 30 years of authoritarian rule under General Suharto, who thereafter led a communist purge in Indonesia, in which at least 500,000 alleged communists were reportedly murdered in retaliation.[59] The military has continued to resist attempts by rights groups and academics to discuss the 1965 killings. [60]

Due to increasing ties with China, President Joko Widodo, is reportedly often accused of having communist linkages. Tobias Basuki, an Indonesian political analyst, believes that it seems that militant and Islamic groups are coalescing for the 2019 elections. [61] Others point the finger at the military for fermenting this 'red scare' for political ambition. Basuki says that the country's Military Chief Gatot Nurmantyo has 'clear political ambitions.' The General reportedly fueled 'controversy this month, when he falsely claimed 5,000 weapons had been illegally imported "on behalf" of President Widodo.' The general is due to retire next March.[62]

 

Turkey continues to arrest alleged coup conspirators

The Turkish government detained another 79 school employees over alleged links to last year's failed military coup. They were suspected of using the network of Fethullah Gulen, who is accused of orchestrating the coup attempt.[63] The suspects worked in private or tutoring schools many of which were suspected of being run by supporters of Gulen. [64]

On September 18, 2017, 30 newspaper staffers went on trial for links to coup attempt as well. The journalists and newspaper executives are facing life sentences.[65]

On September 15, 2017, Turkey also detained the main opposition leader's lawyer for alleged links to the network accused of carrying out last year's failed coup attempt.[66]

 
 


References

[1] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 01, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4224&cat=army

[2] Army to be deployed for NA-120 by-poll, directs ECP, GEO NEWS, August 24, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.geo.tv/latest/155018-na-120-bypoll-ecp-orders-deployment-of-army

[3] Unofficial NA-120 by-polls' results show PML-N victorious, directs ECP, PAKISTAN TODAY, September 17, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/09/17/unofficial-na-120-by-polls-results-show-pml-n-ahead-of-pti/

[4] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 17, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4246&cat=army

[5] Trump backs off Afghan withdrawal, lambastes Pakistan over terrorist 'safe havens,' DAWN, August 22, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1353164

[6] Khawaja Asif calls for stronger stance against banned groups in country, DAWN, September 06, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1355968

[7] Khawaja Asif calls for stronger stance against banned groups in country, DAWN, September 06, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1355968

[8] Civil, military leadership rejected US policy: Khurram, THE NEWS, September 11, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/229143-Civil-military-leadership-rejected-US-policy-Khurram

[9] Lawmakers lash out at Khawaja Asif over 'put our house in order' remark, DAWN, September 28, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1360598

[10] Put our house in order: PM Abbasi endorses Khawaja Asif's remarks, THE NEWS, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/230804-Put-our-house-in-order-PM-Abbasi-endorses-Khawaja-Asifs-remarks

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 08, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4234&cat=army

[14] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 10, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t- press_release&cat=army&date=2017/9/10

[15] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 14, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4242&cat=army

[16] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4276&cat=army

[17] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4276&cat=army

[18] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4276&cat=army

[19] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4276&cat=army

[20] Britons lose cricket match, win hearts in North Waziristan, DAWN, September 22, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1359265/britons-lose-cricket-match-win-hearts-in-north-waziristan

[21] Britons lose cricket match, win hearts in North Waziristan, DAWN, September 22, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1359265/britons-lose-cricket-match-win-hearts-in-north-waziristan

[22] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 22, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/9/22

[23] Ibid.

[24] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 28, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4279&cat=army

[25] Abbasi first PM to participate in air force training mission, DAWN, September 10, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1356704/abbasi-first-pm-to-participate-in-air-force-training-mission

[26] UN body assails census data sharing with Nadra, army, DAWN, September 24, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1359691/un-body-assails-census-data-sharing-with-nadra-army

[27] ISI to have more civilians at the top, DAWN, September 17, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1358185/isi-to-have-more-civilians-at-the-top

[28] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4250&cat=army

[29] National Assembly Secretariat Press Release, Official Website, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
http://www.na.gov.pk/en/pressrelease.php?content=103#2783

[30] Army chief Gen Bajwa believes in civilian supremacy, THE NEWS, September 20, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/231174-COAS-believes-in-civilian-supremacy

[31] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4250&cat=army

[32] PAF chief urges private sector to explore aviation sector, THE NEWS, September 20, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/231190-PAF-chief-urges-private-sector-to-explore-aviation-sector

[33] Ibid.

[34] Ibid.

[35] Army, civilian big guns review Muharram plan, THE NATION, September 21, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://nation.com.pk/national/21-Sep-2017/army-civilian-big-guns-review-muharram-plan

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid.

[38] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4276&cat=army

[39] Ibid.

[40] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 17, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4239&cat=army

[41] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 13, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4240&cat=army

[42] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 17, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4239&cat=army

[43] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 14, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4241&cat=army

[44] Tripartite meeting in Kabul vows to eliminate IS from region, DAWN, September 15, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1357791/tripartite-meeting-in-kabul-vows-to-eliminate-is-from-region

[45] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 14, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4241&cat=army

[46] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4250&cat=army

[47] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 14, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4241&cat=army

[48] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 21, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4256&cat=army

[49] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 22, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4259&cat=army

[50] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 26, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4274&cat=army

[51] Pak, Iran army chiefs seek Muslim world action, THE NEWS, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/230756-Pak-Iran-army-chiefs-seek-Muslim-world-action

[52] Pak, Iran army chiefs seek Muslim world action, THE NEWS, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/230756-Pak-Iran-army-chiefs-seek-Muslim-world-action

[53] Prime Minister Office, Official Website, September 29, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=2011

[54] Prime Minister Office, Official Website, September 08, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1972

[55] Prime Minister Office, Official Website, September 08, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1972

[56] Prime Minister Office, Official Website, September 08, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1972

[57] Prime Minister Office, Official Website, September 29, 2017, as accessed on September 30, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=2011

[58] Fugitive former Thai PM Yingluck gets five years' jail in absentia, REUTERS, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-politics-yingluck/fugitive-former-thai-pm-yingluck-gets-five-years-jail-in-absentia-idUSKCN1C204C

[59] Thousands of Indonesians hold anti-communist protest in capital, REUTERS, September 29, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-indonesia-politics/thousands-of-indonesians-hold-anti-communist-protest-in-capital-idUKKCN1C412Z

[60] 'Red Scare' puts pressure on Indonesian president, REUTERS, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-politics-military/red-scare-puts-pressure-on-indonesian-president-idUSKCN1C21AQ

[61] 'Red Scare' puts pressure on Indonesian president, REUTERS, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-politics-military/red-scare-puts-pressure-on-indonesian-president-idUSKCN1C21AQ

[62] 'Red Scare' puts pressure on Indonesian president, REUTERS, September 27, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-politics-military/red-scare-puts-pressure-on-indonesian-president-idUSKCN1C21AQ

[63] Turkey orders 79 school employees detained in post-coup probe: NTV, REUTERS, September 13, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-detentions/turkey-orders-79-school-employees-detained-in-post-coup-probe-ntv-idUSKCN1BO0O8

[64] Turkey orders 79 school employees detained in post-coup probe: NTV, REUTERS, September 13, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-detentions/turkey-orders-79-school-employees-detained-in-post-coup-probe-ntv-idUSKCN1BO0O8

[65] Turkey starts trial of 30 newspaper staff for links to coup attempt, REUTERS, September 18, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-court/turkey-starts-trial-of-30-newspaper-staff-for-links-to-coup-attempt-idUSKCN1BT25P

[66] Turkey detains main opposition leader's lawyer over coup links, REUTERS, September 15, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-opposition/turkey-detains-main-opposition-leaders-lawyer-over-coup-links-idUSKCN1BQ1HO

[67] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, September 06, 2017, as accessed on September 27, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/9/6

[68] Ibid.

[69] ISI to have more civilians at the top, DAWN, September 17, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1358185/isi-to-have-more-civilians-at-the-top

[70] Thai junta leader, backers fuel suspicions of plans to stay in power, REUTERS, September 24, 2017, as accessed on September 28, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-politics/thai-junta-leader-backers-fuel-suspicions-of-plans-to-stay-in-power-idUSKCN1BZ01D